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SPCI - Sociedade Portuguesa de Cuidados Intensivos

Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva

AMIB - Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE MEDICINA INTENSIVA AND THE SOCIEDADE PORTUGUESA DE CUIDADOS INTENSIVOS

ISSN: 0103-507X
Online ISSN: 1982-4335

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Freitas FGR, Hammond N, Li Y, Azevedo LCP, Cavalcanti AB, Taniguchi L, et al. Práticas de ressuscitação volêmica em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras: uma análise secundária do estudo Fluid-TRIPS. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2021;33(2):206-218

 

 

2021;33(2):206-218
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

10.5935/0103-507X.20210028

Resuscitation fluid practices in Brazilian intensive care units: a secondary analysis of Fluid-TRIPS

Práticas de ressuscitação volêmica em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras: uma análise secundária do estudo Fluid-TRIPS

Flavio Geraldo Rezende de Freitas1, Naomi Hammond2, Yang Li2, Luciano Cesar Pontes de Azevedo3,4, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti5, Leandro Taniguchi4, André Gobatto4, André Miguel Japiassú6,7, Antonio Tonete Bafi1,8, Bruno Franco Mazza9, Danilo Teixeira Noritomi10, Felipe Dal-Pizzol11, Fernando Bozza7,12, Jorge Ibrahin Figueira Salluh12, Glauco Adrieno Westphal13, Márcio Soares12, Murillo Santucci César de Assunção14, Thiago Lisboa15, Suzana Margarete Ajeje Lobo16, Achilles Rohlfs Barbosa17, Adriana Fonseca Ventura18, Ailson Faria de Souza19, Alexandre Francisco Silva20, Alexandre Toledo21, Aline Reis12, Allan Cembranel22, Alvaro Rea Neto23,24,25, Ana Lúcia Gut26, Ana Patricia Pierre Justo27, Ana Paula Santos28, André Campos D. de Albuquerque29, André Scazufka30, Antonio Babo Rodrigues31, Bruno Bonaccorsi Fernandino32, Bruno Goncalves Silva33, Bruno Sarno Vidal31, Bruno Valle Pinheiro34, Bruno Vilela Costa Pinto35, Carlos Augusto Ramos Feijo36, Carlos de Abreu Filho37, Carlos Eduardo da Costa Nunes Bosso38, Carlos Eduardo Nassif Moreira39, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Ramos40, Carmen Tavares41, Cidamaiá Arantes42, Cintia Grion43,44, Ciro Leite Mendes45, Claudio Kmohan46, Claudio Piras47, Cristine Pilati Pileggi Castro48, Cyntia Lins49, Daniel Beraldo50, Daniel Fontes51, Daniela Boni52, Débora Castiglioni53, Denise de Moraes Paisani5, Durval Ferreira Fonseca Pedroso54,55, Ederson Roberto Mattos56, Edgar de Brito Sobrinho57, Edgar M. V. Troncoso58, Edison Moraes Rodrigues Filho59, Eduardo Enrico Ferrari Nogueira60, Eduardo Leme Ferreira61,62, Eduardo Souza Pacheco1,63, Euzebio Jodar64, Evandro L. A. Ferreira65, Fabiana Fernandes de Araujo66,67, Fabiana Schuelter Trevisol68, Fábio Ferreira Amorim69, Fabio Poianas Giannini70, Fabrício Primitivo Matos Santos69, Fátima Buarque71, Felipe Gallego Lima72, Fernando Antonio Alvares da Costa73, Fernando Cesar dos Anjos Sad74, Fernando G. Aranha75, Fernando Ganem39, Flavio Callil31, Francisco Flávio Costa Filho76, Frederico Toledo Campo Dall´Arto77, Geovani Moreno78, Gilberto Friedman79, Giulliana Martines Moralez31, Guilherme Abdalla da Silva80, Guilherme Costa81, Guilherme Silva Cavalcanti82, Guilherme Silva Cavalcanti83, Gustavo Navarro Betônico84, Gustavo Navarro Betônico85, Hélder Reis86, Helia Beatriz N. Araujo87, Helio Anjos Hortiz Júnior88, Helio Penna Guimaraes1, Hugo Urbano89, Israel Maia90, Ivan Lopes Santiago Filho91, Jamil Farhat Júnior92, Janu Rangel Alvarez93,94, Joel Tavares Passos95, Jorge Eduardo da Rocha Paranhos96, José Aurelio Marques97, José Gonçalves Moreira Filho98, Jose Neto Andrade99, José Onofre de C Sobrinho54, Jose Terceiro de Paiva Bezerra100, Juliana Apolônio Alves101, Juliana Ferreira4, Jussara Gomes102, Karina Midori Sato103, Karine Gerent104, Kathia Margarida Costa Teixeira1, Katia Aparecida Pessoa Conde105, Laércia Ferreira Martins106, Lanese Figueirêdo107, Leila Rezegue108, Leonardo Tcherniacovsk109, Leone Oliveira Ferraz110, Liane Cavalcante111, Ligia Rabelo28, Lilian Miilher112, Lisiane Garcia113, Luana Tannous114, Ludhmila Abrahão Hajjar72,115, Luís Eduardo Miranda Paciência116, Luiz Monteiro da Cruz Neto39, Macia Valeria Bley117, Marcelo Ferreira Sousa118, Marcelo Lourencini Puga119, Marcelo Luz Pereira Romano120, Marciano Nobrega121,122,123, Marcio Arbex124,125, Márcio Leite Rodrigues126, Márcio Osório Guerreiro127, Marcone Rocha128, Maria Angela Pangoni Alves129, Maria Angela Pangoni Alves130, Maria Doroti Rosa131, Mariza D’Agostino Dias39, Miquéias Martins132, Mirella de Oliveira133, Miriane Melo Silveira Moretti134, Mirna Matsui135, Octavio Messender136, Orlando Luís de Andrade Santarém137, Patricio Júnior Henrique da Silveira138, Paula Frizera Vassallo139, Paulo Antoniazzi140, Paulo César Gottardo141, Paulo Correia142, Paulo Ferreira143, Paulo Torres144, Pedro Gabrile M. de Barros e Silva145, Rafael Foernges146, Rafael Gomes147, Rafael Moraes148, Raimundo Nonato filho149, Renato Luis Borba150, Renato V Gomes151, Ricardo Cordioli152, Ricardo Lima153, Ricardo Pérez López154, Ricardo Rath de Oliveira Gargioni155, Richard Rosenblat156, Roberta Machado de Souza157, Roberto Almeida158, Roberto Camargo Narciso159, Roberto Marco160,161, Roberto waltrick162, Rodrigo Biondi163, Rodrigo Figueiredo164, Rodrigo Santana Dutra165, Roseane Batista166, Rouge Felipe167, Rubens Sergio da Silva Franco168, Sandra Houly169, Sara Socorro Faria54, Sergio Felix Pinto170, Sergio Luzzi171, Sergio Sant’ana172, Sergio Sonego Fernandes173, Sérgio Yamada174, Sérgio Zajac175, Sidiner Mesquita Vaz176, Silvia Aparecida Bezerra Bezerra177, Tatiana Bueno Tardivo Farhat103, Thiago Martins Santos178, Tiago Smith179, Ulysses V. A. Silva180, Valnei Bento Damasceno181, Vandack Nobre182, Vicente Cés de Souza Dantas183, Vivian Menezes Irineu184, Viviane Bogado185, Wagner Nedel186, Walther Campos Filho187, Weidson Dantas188, William Viana28, Wilson de Oliveira Filho189,190, Wilson Martins Delgadinho191,192, Simon Finfer2, Flavia Ribeiro Machado1,

1 Discipline of Anesthesiology, Pain and Intensive Care, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
2 Critical Care and Trauma Division, The George Institute for Global Health - Sydney, Austrália.
3 Hospital Sírio-Libanês - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
4 Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
5 Instituto de Pesquisa, HCor - Hospital do Coração - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
6 Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
7 Hospital de Clínicas Mário Lioni - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
8 Hospital do Rim e Hipertensão, Fundação Oswaldo Ramos - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
9 Hospital Samaritano - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
10 Hospital Paulistano - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
11 Hospital São José - Criciúma (SC), Brazil.
12 Instituto D’Or de Ensino e Pesquisa - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
13 Hospital Municipal São José - Joinville (SC), Brazil.
14 Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
15 Hospital Santa Rita - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
16 Hospital de Base, Faculdade de Medicina de São Jose do Rio Preto - São José do Rio Preto (SP), Brazil.
17 Hospital Unimed de Belo Horizonte - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
18 Hospital Santa Lúcia - Divinópolis (MG), Brazil.
19 Hospital Evangélico de Sorocaba - Sorocaba (SP), Brazil.
20 Hospital PIO XII - São José dos Campos (SP), Brazil.
21 Hospital São Camilo Pompéia - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
22 Hospital Alvorada Brasília - Brasília (DF), Brazil.
23 Hospital Ecoville - Curitiba (PR), Brazil.
24 Hospital do Trabalhador - Curitiba (PR), Brazil.
25 Hospital Vita Batel - Curitiba (PR), Brazil.
26 Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” - Botucatu (SP), Brazil.
27 Hospital Geral Dr. César Cals - Fortaleza (CE), Brazil.
28 Hospital Copa D’Or - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
29 Associação Beneficente Hospital Unimar - Marília (SP), Brazil.
30 Hospital Casa de Saúde de Santos - Santos (SP), Brazil.
31 Hospital Estadual Getúlio Vargas - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
32 Hospital e Maternidade Otaviano Neves - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
33 Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer- Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
34 Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora- Juiz de Fora (MG), Brazil.
35 Lifecenter - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
36 Hospital Geral de Fortaleza - Fortaleza (CE), Brazil.
37 Hospital Municipal Dr. Moysés Deutsch (M’Boi Mirim) - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
38 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Presidente Prudente - Presidente Prudente (SP), Brazil.
39 Hospital 9 de julho - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
40 Hospital Estadual Rocha Faria - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
41 Hospital Municipal Santa Isabel - João Pessoa (PA), Brazil.
42 Hospital e Maternidade Municipal Dr. Odelmo Leão Carneiro - Uberlândia (MG), Brazil.
43 Hospital Evangélico de Londrina - Londrina (PR), Brazil.
44 Universidade Estadual de Londrina - Londrina (SC), Brazil.
45 Hospital Samaritano João Pessoa - João Pessoa (PB), Brazil.
46 Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo - Santa Maria (RS), Brazil.
47 Vitória Apart Hospital - Vitória (ES), Brazil.
48 Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia - Passo Fundo (RS), Brazil.
49 Hospital do Subúrbio - Salvador (BA), Brazil.
50 Hospital Renascentista - Pouso Alegre (MG), Brazil.
51 Hospital Felício Rocho - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
52 Hospital Municipal Irmã Dulce - Praia Grande (SP), Brazil.
53 Hospital Universitário Júlio Müller, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso - Cuiabá (MT), Brazil.
54 Hospital de Urgência - Goiânia (GO), Brazil.
55 Hospital Geral de Goiânia - Goiânia (GO), Brazil.
56 Fundação Doutor Amaral Carvalho - Jaú (SP), Brazil.
57 Hospital Adventista de Belém - Belém (PA), Brazil.
58 Hospital Santa Juliana - Rio Branco (AC), Brazil.
59 Hospital Dom Vicente Scherer - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
60 Hospital Primavera - Aracaju (SE), Brazil.
61 Hospital Carlos da Silva Lacaz - Francisco Morato (SP), Brazil.
62 Hospital Escola, Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí - Jundiaí (SP), Brazil.
63 Hospital Sepaco - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
64 Hospital Professor Edmundo Vasconcelos - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
65 Hospital Paulo Sacramento - Jundiaí (SP), Brazil.
66 Clínica Dom Rodrigo - João Pessoa (PA), Brazil.
67 Complexo Hospitalar Ortotrauma de Mangabeira - Fortaleza (CE), Brazil.
68 Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição - Tubarão (SC), Brazil.
69 Hospital Regional de Samambaia - Brasília (DF), Brazil.
70 Hospital São Camilo Ipiranga - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
71 Hospital da Restauração - Recife (PE), Brazil.
72 Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
73 Hospital Santa Rita - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
74 Hospital Estadual Jayme Santos Neves - Recife (PE), Brazil.
75 Hospital SOS Cárdio - Florianópolis (SC), Brazil.
76 Hospital da Luz Vila Mariana - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
77 Hospital Maternidade e Pronto-Socorro Santa Luci - Poços de Caldas (MG), Brazil.
78 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória da Conquista - Vitória da Conquista (BA), Brazil.
79 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
80 Hospital São Francisco de Assis - Porto Real (RJ), Brazil.
81 Hospital Memorial São José - Recife (PE), Brazil.
82 Hospital Regional de Jundiaí - Jundiaí (SP), Brazil.
83 Hospital Universitário, Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí - Jundiaí (SP), Brazil.
84 Hospital Regional de Presidente Prudente - Presidente Prudente (SP), Brazil.
85 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Assis - Assis (SP), Brazil.
86 Hospital de Clínicas Gaspar Vianna - Belém (PA), Brazil.
87 Hospital do Coração do Brasil - Brasília (DF), Brazil.
88 Hospital Hélio Anjos Ortiz - Curitibanos (SC), Brazil.
89 Hospital Vila da Serra - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
90 Hospital Nereu Ramos - Florianópolis (SC), Brazil.
91 Hospital Santa Maria Intensibarra - Barra Mansa (RJ), Brazil.
92 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Santo Amaro - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
93 Santa Casa de Caridade de Don Pedrito - Dom Pedrito (RS), Brazil.
94 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Santana do Livramento - Santana do Livramento (RS), Brazil.
95 Hospital Unimed de Macaé - Macaé (RJ), Brazil.
96 Hospital Municipal Pedro II - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
97 Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
98 Hospital São Mateus - Fortaleza (CE), Brazil.
99 Hospital IBR - Vitória da Conquista (BA), Brazil.
100 Hospital Uniclinic - Fortaleza (CE), Brazil.
101 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Paraguaçu Paulista - Paraguaçu Paulista (SP), Brazil.
102 Associação Hospitalar Beneficente São Vicente de Paulo - Passo Fundo (RS), Brazil.
103 Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
104 Hospital Santa Isabel - Blumenau (SC), Brazil.
105 Hospital Municipal Dr Jose Soares Hungria - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
106 Hospital Fernandes Távora - Fortaleza (CE), Brazil.
107 Hospital Distrital Evandro Ayres de Moura - Fortaleza (CE), Brazil.
108 Hospital Saúde da Mulher - Belém (PA), Brazil.
109 Hospital Estadual de Urgência e Emergência de Vitória - Vitória (ES), Brazil.
110 Samur - Vitória da Conquista (BA), Brazil.
111 Hospital e Pronto-Socorro 28 de Agosto - Manaus (AM), Brazil.
112 Hospital Assunção - São Bernardo do Campo (SP), Brazil.
113 Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria - Santa Maria (RS), Brazil.
114 Hospital Universitário Cajuru - Curitiba (PR), Brazil.
115 Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
116 Hospital Unimed de Limeira - Limeira (SP), Brazil.
117 Hospital Amecor - Cuiabá (MT), Brazil.
118 Santa Casa de Caridade de Diamantina - Diamantina (MG), Brazil.
119 Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo - Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil.
120 HCor - Hospital do Coração - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
121 Hospital Goiânia Leste - Goiânia (GO), Brazil.
122 Hospital Ortopédico - Goiânia (GO), Brazil.
123 Hospital Santa Maria - Goiânia (GO), Brazil.
124 Hospital Municipal Dr. Munir Rafful - Volta Redonda (RJ), Brazil.
125 Hospital Jardim Amália - Volta Redonda (RJ), Brazil.
126 Hospital Madre Regina Prottman - Santa Tereza (ES), Brazil.
127 Hospital Universitário São Francisco de Paula, Universidade Católica de Pelotas - Pelotas (RS), Brazil.
128 Hospital São Joao de Deus - Divinópolis (MG), Brazil.
129 Hospital Nossa Senhora Monte Serrat - Salto (SP), Brazil.
130 Hospital Unimed Salto - Salto (SP), Brazil.
131 Hospital Moinhos de Vento - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
132 Hospital Geral de Vitória da Conquista - Vitória da Conquista (BA), Brazil.
133 Hospital Marcelino Champagnat - Curitiba (PR), Brazil.
134 Hospital São Lucas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
135 Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados - Dourados (GO), Brazil.
136 Hospital Português - Salvador (BA), Brazil.
137 Hospital Brigadeiro - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
138 Hospital Regional de Sousa - Sousa (PB), Brazil.
139 Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - Vitória (ES), Brazil.
140 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Ribeirão Preto - Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil.
141 Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley - João Pessoa (PB), Brazil.
142 Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
143 Hospital Adventista de Manaus - Manaus (AM), Brazil.
144 Santa Casa Maringá, Universidade Estadual Maringá - Maringá (PR), Brazil.
145 Hospital Total Cor - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
146 Hospital Universitário, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - Santa Cruz do Sul (RS), Brazil.
147 Hospital Dom Hélder - Cabo (PE), Brazil.
148 Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
149 Hospital Anis Rassi - Goiânia (GO), Brazil.
150 Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas II - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
151 Hospital Unimed Rio de Janeiro - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
152 Hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
153 Hospital Samaritano Rio de Janeiro - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
154 São Bernardo Apart Hospital - Colatina (ES), Brazil.
155 Hospital Nossa Senhora dos Prazeres - Lages (SC), Brazil.
156 Hospital Unimed ABC - São Bernardo do Campo (SP), Brazil.
157 Hospital Municipal de Paracatu - Paracatu (MG), Brazil.
158 Hospital Municipal Padre Germano Lauck - Foz do Iguaçu (RS), Brazil.
159 Hospital Santa Helena - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
160 Hospital Santa Izabel - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
161 Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
162 Hospital Tereza Ramos - Lages (SC), Brazil.
163 Hospital Alvorada Taguatinga - Brasília (DF), Brazil.
164 Hospital Maternidade São José - Colatina (ES), Brazil.
165 Hospital Universitário Ciências Médicas, Fundação Educacional Lucas Machado - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
166 Santa Casa de Belém do Pará - Belém (PA), Brazil.
167 Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
168 Hospital Novo Atibaia - Atibaia (SP), Brazil.
169 BP - A Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
170 Hospital Universitário Maria Aparecida Pedrossian, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul - Campo Grande (MS), Brazil.
171 Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual “Francisco Morato de Oliveira” - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
172 Hospital Norte D’Or - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
173 Hospital Estadual Ipiranga - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
174 Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Universidade Estadual de Maringá - Maringá (PR), Brazil.
175 Albert Sabin Hospital e Maternidade - Juiz de Fora (MG), Brazil.
176 Casa de Caridade de Carangola - Carangola (MG), Brazil.
177 Irmandade de Misericórdia de Guaxupé - Guaxupé (MG), Brazil.
178 Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Campinas (SP), Brazil.
179 Hospital São Lucas - Aracaju (SE), Brazil.
180 Fundação Pio XII- Hospital de Câncer de Barretos - Barretos (SP), Brazil.
181 Clínica Campo Grande - Campo Grande (MS), Brazil.
182 Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
183 Casa de Saúde Santa Lúcia - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
184 Hospital Regional de Itapetininga São Camilo - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
185 Santa Casa de Angra dos Reis - Angra dos Reis (RJ), Brazil.
186 Grupo Hospitalar Nossa Senhora da Conceição - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
187 Irmandade Misericórdia Hospital Santa Casa de Monte Alto - Monte Alto (SP), Brazil.
188 Hospital São Marcos - Recife (PE), Brazil.
189 Hospital Unimed de Manaus - Manaus (AM), Brazil.
190 Hospital Universitário Getúlio Vargas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas - Manaus (AM), Brazil.
191 Casa de Saúde Campinas - Campinas (SP), Brazil.
192 Hospital e Maternidade Galileo - Valinhos (SP), Brazil.

Conflicts of interest: None.

Responsible editor: Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro Besen

Submitted on September 19, 2020
Accepted on December 08, 2020

Corresponding author: Flavio Geraldo Rezende Freitas, Disciplina de Anestesiologia Dor e Medicina Intensiva Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Napoleão de Barros, 737, 6º andar, Zip code: 04024900 - São Paulo (SP), Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe fluid resuscitation practices in Brazilian intensive care units and to compare them with those of other countries participating in the Fluid-TRIPS.
METHODS: This was a prospective, international, cross-sectional, observational study in a convenience sample of intensive care units in 27 countries (including Brazil) using the Fluid-TRIPS database compiled in 2014. We described the patterns of fluid resuscitation use in Brazil compared with those in other countries and identified the factors associated with fluid choice.
RESULTS: On the study day, 3,214 patients in Brazil and 3,493 patients in other countries were included, of whom 16.1% and 26.8% (p < 0.001) received fluids, respectively. The main indication for fluid resuscitation was impaired perfusion and/or low cardiac output (Brazil: 71.7% versus other countries: 56.4%, p < 0.001). In Brazil, the percentage of patients receiving crystalloid solutions was higher (97.7% versus 76.8%, p < 0.001), and 0.9% sodium chloride was the most commonly used crystalloid (62.5% versus 27.1%, p < 0.001). The multivariable analysis suggested that the albumin levels were associated with the use of both crystalloids and colloids, whereas the type of fluid prescriber was associated with crystalloid use only.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that crystalloids are more frequently used than colloids for fluid resuscitation in Brazil, and this discrepancy in frequencies is higher than that in other countries. Sodium chloride (0.9%) was the crystalloid most commonly prescribed. Serum albumin levels and the type of fluid prescriber were the factors associated with the choice of crystalloids or colloids for fluid resuscitation.

Keywords: Fluid therapy; Critical care; Colloids; Crystalloid solutions; Hemodynamics; Shock.

 

INTRODUCTION

Fluid resuscitation is defined as intravenous fluid administration with the aim of improving tissue perfusion in shock states. It is one of the most common interventions in critically ill patients. Despite being a frequent intervention, fluid resuscitation lacks a clear definition. The choice of fluid to be administered as well as the dose and speed are not well determined, leading to differences in bedside practices.(1,2)

In the last 15 years, multiple randomized controlled trials and subsequent meta-analyses have shown that the type of fluid used for resuscitation, particularly hydroxyethyl starch (HES), may negatively affect outcomes.(3-12) Even with recent published guidelines including new evidences,(13,14) delays and failures with translating recommendations into practice are common, leading to variability in care.(15,16) The Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation - Translation of Research Into Practice Study (SAFE-TRIPS), a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007 including 391 intensive care units (ICUs) across 25 countries, reported that resuscitation practices varied significantly. Although colloid solutions were more expensive and may possibly be harmful in some patients, they were administered to more patients and during more resuscitation episodes than crystalloids.(17)

Recently, the same group conducted a similar observational study in a convenience sample of ICUs: the Fluid-TRIPS.(18) This study demonstrated an important change in clinical practice, with a preferential use of crystalloids, specifically buffered salt solutions, over colloids. Another interesting finding of this study was that fluid choice was determined by local practice rather than by any identifiable patient characteristic.

The number of contributing ICUs from Brazil in the Fluid-TRIPS was just over half of all participating units, allowing the unique opportunity to separately analyze Brazilian data. Our hypothesis was that Brazilian ICUs would have different standards for fluid resuscitation, mainly regarding the choice of crystalloids.

Thus, the objective of this study was to describe current practices on fluid resuscitation in Brazilian ICUs and to compare Brazil with the other countries participating in the study.

METHODS

This secondary analysis of a prospective, international, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in a convenience sample of ICUs in 27 countries using the Fluid-TRIPS database, compiled in 2014.(18)

In Brazil, we recruited participating sites at critical care meetings through the Brazilian Research in Critical Care network (BRICNet) website and contacts and personal contacts with key opinion leaders. Participation was voluntary, and any hospital willing to join the study was considered eligible, with no exclusion criteria. The coordinating center was the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, and the institution’s Ethics and Research Committee approved the study protocol under the number CAAE 36093314.4.1001.5505 with a waiver for Informed Consent considering the observational nature of the study.

Participants and data collection

In Brazil, the sites collected data on any single day between December 9th and 11th 2014. Methodological details were previously published.(18) Briefly, the study day was defined as a 24-hour period. The investigators included all patients over 16 years old who required one or more fluid resuscitation episodes during the study period. There were no exclusion criteria. The total number of patients being treated in the ICUs on the study day was also recorded. We defined a fluid resuscitation episode as an hour during which a patient received a specifically prescribed intravenous fluid bolus of any crystalloid or colloid solution, a continuous infusion of 5mL/kg/hour or greater of crystalloid and/or any dose of colloid by continuous infusion.(18)

We recorded information on fluid availability in the participating ICUs as well as data related to patients, including demographic data, illness severity scores, admission diagnosis, laboratory test data, clinical data on the study day, predefined subgroup characteristics (trauma, traumatic brain injury - TBI, sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome - ARDS), and information on the type and volume of fluids for resuscitation. The reason for fluid resuscitation and the prescriber characteristics were also recorded. We defined specialist or assistant physician as the board-certified intensivist or the physician responsible for the ICU on the study day. We defined senior resident or fellow as graduated students or residents in the last years of their residency, and we defined residents as those in the first years of their residency regardless of the specialty as it is usual in Brazil to have residents of different specialties in training.

We collected all data using an electronic data capture system (REDCap, Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, USA), hosted at Instituto D’Or de Ensino e Pesquisa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Statistical analysis

Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation - SD or the median [interquartile range]. Categorical variables are expressed as counts (percentages). The comparison of the data between Brazil and other countries and between the administration of colloids and crystalloids in Brazilian patients were performed using a t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous data or Pearson’s chi-squared test for categorical data, as appropriate. Differences in the proportions of crystalloid and colloid episodes were tested using generalized estimating equations (GEEs), accounting for clustering at the patient level.

As in the main study,(18) multivariable analyses using GEEs accounting for clustering at the patient level were conducted to determine associations between patient demographics, clinical characteristics and the type of fluid administered. We used 2 binary outcomes in the analysis: 1) crystalloid episode Yes versus crystalloid episode No, and 2) colloid episode Yes versus colloid episode No. The denominators of these two outcomes were the total number of fluid episodes; thus, as a given patient could have received crystalloids as well as colloids within the same hour (the same fluid episode), the total number of fluid episodes was higher than the sum of crystalloid episodes and colloid episodes. As these outcomes were analyzed separately, two different sets of odds ratios (ORs) were generated for each variable. Variables meeting a predetermined level of statistical significance (p < 0.1) with the administration of crystalloids or colloids in univariate models were included in the final multivariable model. Associations were considered statistically significant if p < 0.01. The results of the multivariable analysis are presented as adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Details regarding the handling of missing data are provided in the main paper.(18) All analyses were carried out using the R statistical software package, version 3.1.0 (2014-04-10).

RESULTS

In Brazil, 217 ICUs participated in the study (participating centers are listed at the end of this manuscript). The overall summary of FLUID-TRIPS data is shown in table 1. Data on the participation of other countries can be found in detail in the main study.(18) During the 24-hour study period, 3,214 patients were included in Brazil, of whom 519 (16.1%) received fluids. Almost half of the patients received fluids within the first two days of ICU admission (46%). The baseline characteristics of patients in Brazil and those of patients in the other countries are shown in table 2.

Table 1 - Overall summary of Fluid-TRIPS
Variable Brazil Other countries Total
Total number of participating ICU sites 217 209 426
Total number of ICU sites recruiting FLUID patients* 176 195 371
Total number of ICU patients 3,214 3,493 6,707
Total number of FLUID patients* 519 937 1,456
FLUID patients* among total ICU patients† (%) 16.1 26.8 21.7
Total number of fluid episodes 880 1,836 2,716

ICU - intensive care unit.

* FLUID patients: patients who required one or more fluid resuscitation episodes during the study period; †p < 0.001 for difference between Brazil and other countries (p-values of Pearson's Chi-squared test). Results expressed as n or %.

Table 1 - Overall summary of Fluid-TRIPS
Table 2 - Baseline characteristics of patients in Brazil and other countries
Variables Brazil
(n = 519)
Other countries
(n = 937)
p value
Age (year) 63.0 (46.0 - 75.0) 64.0 (53.0 - 74.0) 0.061
Sex, male     296 (57.0)     582 (62.1) 0.058
APACHE II in 24 hours prior to survey day 18.0 (12.0 - 25.0) 18.0 (12.0 - 25.0) 0.910
Number of days in ICU 2.0 (1.0 - 6.0) 1.0 (0.0 - 7.0) 0.007
Patients receiving fluid resuscitation according to the number of days in the ICU at the study day      
    Day 0 119/519 (22.9) 327/936 (34.9)  < 0.0001
    Day 1 120/519 (23.1) 172/936 (18.4)  
    Day 2 68/519 (13.1) 87/936 (9.3)  
    Days 3 - 7 101/519 (19.5) 135/936 (14.4)  
    Days 8 - 14 53/519 (10.2) 99/936 (10.6)  
    Days 15 - 21 25/519 (4.8) 42/936 (4.5)  
    Days 22 - 28 7/519 (1.3) 25/936 (2.7)  
    Days 29 - 59 16/519 (3.1) 35/936 (3.7)  
    Day ≥ 60 10/519 (1.9) 14/936 (1.5)  
Admission characteristics      
    Operating room after elective surgery 137/519 (26.4) 243/936 (26.0) 0.185
    Emergency room 132/519 (25.4) 198/936 (21.2)  
    Hospital floor 83/519 (16.0) 169/936 (18.1)  
    Operating room after emergency surgery 69/519 (13.3) 135/936 (14.4)  
    Transferred from other ICU or hospital 49/519 (9.4) 117/936 (12.5)  
    Hospital floor after previous ICU stay 49/519 (9.4) 74/936 (7.9)  
Admission diagnosis      
    Nonsurgical 298/519 (57.4) 512/936 (54.7) 0.318
    Surgical 221/519 (42.6) 424/936 (45.3)  
Trauma category at hospital admission      
    No trauma 468/518 (90.3) 843/935 (90.2) 0.921
    Trauma with TBI 14/518 (2.7) 23/935 (2.5)  
    Trauma without TBI 36/518 (6.9) 69/935 (7.4)  
ARDS in 24 hours prior to survey day 32 (6.2) 83 (8.9) 0.070
Sepsis in 24 hours prior to survey day 205 (39.7) 345 (36.9) 0.293
APACHE II chronic health points criteria      
    Chronic health points liver criteria 14/508 (2.8) 42/927 (4.5) 0.097
    Chronic health points renal criteria 15/509 (2.9) 18/928 (1.9) 0.223
    Chronic health points cardiac criteria 30/508 (5.9) 58/928 (6.2) 0.795
    Chronic health points respiratory criteria 27/509 (5.3) 65/932 (7.0) 0.215
    Chronic health points immunocompromised 66/511 (12.9) 91/929 (9.8) 0.069

APACHE - Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; ICU - intensive care unit; TBI - traumatic brain injury; ARDS - acute respiratory distress syndrome. Summary statistics of continuous variables are presented as the median (interquartile range), with p-values based on the nonparametric test (i.e., Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Summary statistics of categorical variables are presented as percentages, with p-values based on Pearson's Chi-squared test.

Table 2 - Baseline characteristics of patients in Brazil and other countries

In 880 fluid resuscitation episodes in Brazil, a specialist was the main fluid prescriber (82.3%), and the main indication for fluid resuscitation was impaired perfusion and/or low cardiac output (71.7%) (Table 3 and Table 1S in Supplementary material). The total volume of resuscitation fluid received and net fluid balance on the survey day were higher in Brazil than in other countries (Table 4).

Table 3 - Indications for fluid resuscitation in Brazil and in other countries
Variables Brazil Other countries p value‡
Indication for fluid in each fluid resuscitation episode n = 877* n = 1,820† p < 0.0001
    Impaired perfusion/low cardiac output 629 (71.7) 1,026 (56.4)  
    Ongoing bleeding 25 (2.9) 38 (2.1)  
    Other fluid losses 24 (2.7) 84 (4.6)  
    Unit protocol 15 (1.7) 119 (6.5)  
    Abnormal vital signs 175 (20.0) 518 (28.5)  
    Other 9 (1.0) 35 (1.9)  
Fluid prescriber n = 880 n = 1.836 p < 0.0001
    Specialist/assistant physician 724 (82.3) 597 (32.5)  
    Senior resident/fellow 92 (10.5) 706 (38.5)  
    Resident 42 (4.8) 455 (24.8)  
    Nurse 1 (0.1) 42 (2.3)  
    Other 21 (2.4) 36 (2.0)  

Missing data: 0.3%; † missing data: 0.9%; ‡ generalized estimating equation model adjusted for the patient-level clustering effect.

Table 3 - Indications for fluid resuscitation in Brazil and in other countries
Table 4 - Characteristics of fluids received per patient in Brazil and other countries
Variable Brazil
(n = 519)
Other countries
(n = 937)
p value
Patients received crystalloid 507 (97.7) 720 (76.8)     < 0.0001
Patients received colloid 38 (7.3) 356 (38.0)  < 0.0001
Total volume of resuscitation fluid received on survey day (mL) 1,000.0
(500.0 - 1,500.0)
550.0
(400.0 - 1,460.0)
    < 0.0001
Total volume of crystalloid received on survey day (mL) 1,000.0
(500.0 - 1,500.0)
835.0
(500.0 - 1,500.0)
0.018
Total volume of colloid received on survey day (mL) 275.0
(100.0 - 500.0)
250.0
(100.0 - 500.0)
0.688
Total volume of fluid input on the survey day (mL) 3,059,0
(2,015.0 - 4,165.5)
3,343.0
(2,436.0 - 4,537.5)
 < 0.0001
Total volume of fluid output on the survey day (mL) 1,385.0
(750.0 - 2,325.0)
2,050.0
(1,152.0 - 3,310.0)
    < 0.0001
Net fluid balance on the survey day (mL) 1,310.0
(500.0 - 2,517.0)
1,018.0
(150.0 - 2,350.0)
0.002

Summary statistics of continuous variables are presented as the median (interquartile range), with p-values based on the nonparametric

Table 4 - Characteristics of fluids received per patient in Brazil and other countries

Compared to other countries, crystalloid solutions were more frequently used than colloid solutions in Brazil (Figure 1). In Brazil, 0.9% sodium chloride was significantly more commonly used than in other countries (62.5% versus 27.1%, p < 0.0001) (Table 1S - Supplementary material), despite the availability of different fluids at the participating ICUs (Table 2S - Supplementary material). In Brazil and other countries, the most commonly used balanced crystalloid solution was Ringer’s lactate. Plasma Lyte was used more frequently in other countries than in Brazil (Table 1S - Supplementary material). The percentage of patients receiving crystalloid or colloid solutions or the number of crystalloid or colloid episodes were not modified in the presence of trauma, TBI, sepsis or ARDS. These conditions did not lead to significant changes in the total volume of resuscitation fluid received on the survey day. However, patients with sepsis and ARDS had a higher net fluid balance on the survey day (Table 3S to Table 6S - Supplementary material).

Figure 1 - Percentage of fluid resuscitation episodes in Brazil and other countries. (A) Comparison of the choice of fluid in each of the fluid episodes. (B) Comparison of the choice of crystalloids in episodes in which crystalloids were used. (C) Comparison of the choice of colloids in episodes in which colloids were used. Percentages may not add to 100%, as patients can be administered more than one type of fluid during resuscitation episodes. HES - hydroxyethyl starch.

We analyzed the factors associated with the choice of crystalloids or colloids for fluid resuscitation episodes. The multivariable analysis (Table 5) suggested that, in Brazil, lower albumin levels (i.e., < 27g/dL, ≥ 27g/dL, or missing), in general, were associated with both the use of crystalloids and colloids (p = 0.001 and < 0.0001, respectively).

Table 5 - Multivariate analysis of factors associated with the choice of crystalloid or colloid for fluid resuscitation episodes in Brazilian patients
Variable Crystalloid given
OR (95%CI)
p value Colloid given
OR (95%CI)
p value
Admission characteristics        
    Operating room after elective surgery 1.0 0.215 1.0 0.1144
    Emergency room 1.0 (0.3 - 2.9)   0.6 (0.2 - 1.5)  
    Hospital floor 3.0 (0.3 - 26.8)   0.2 (0.0 - 1.2)  
    Transferred from other ICU or hospital 2.5 (0.3 - 22.6)   0.7 (0.2 - 3.1)  
    Operating room after emergency surgery 0.6 (0.1 - 2.6)   0.8 (0.2 - 2.7)  
    Hospital floor after previous ICU stay 0.3 (0.1 - 1.1)   2.4 (0.8 - 7.5)  
Fluid prescriber        
    Specialist/assistant physician 1.0     < 0.0001 1.0 0.1483
    Senior resident/fellow 9.9 (3.6 - 27.7)   0.2 (0.0 - 1.1)  
    Resident 0.6 (0.1 - 3.9)   1.4 (0.3 - 6.5)  
Metabolic acidosis        
    No 1.0 0.241 1.0 0.2207
    Yes 0.5 (0.1 - 1.8)   1.3 (0.5 - 3.4)  
    Missing 0.3 (0.1 - 1.2)   2.5 (0.9 - 7.1)  
Lactate (mmol/L) categories        
    < 2 1.0 0.394 1.0 0.8014
    ≥ 2 0.9 (0.2 - 3.5)   0.8 (0.3 - 2.1)  
    Missing 0.4 (0.1 - 1.8)   1.1 (0.4 - 3.0)  
Mean arterial pressure (per 10mmHg decrease) 1.2 (1.0 - 1.5) 0.012 0.9 (0.7 - 1.0) 0.0669
Albumin (g/L) categories        
    < 27 1.0 0.001 1.0  < 0.0001
    ≥ 27 8.6 (0.8 - 89.8)   0.2 (0.0 - 0.9)  
    Missing 7.2 (2.5 - 20.7)   0.2 (0.1 - 0.4)  

OR - odds ratio; 95%CI - 95% confidence interval; ICU - intensive care unit. The results were generated from a generalized estimating equation model with patient ID as a cluster, using two binary outcomes in the analysis: (1) crystalloid episode Yes versus crystalloid episode No, and (2) colloid episode Yes versus colloid episode No. The denominators of these two outcomes were the total number of fluid episodes; thus, a given patient could have received a crystalloid as well as a colloid within the same hour (the same fluid episode). The analysis included 844 episodes from 503 study participants, as data were lost due to missing values that could not be included in the multivariate analysis. This number represents a loss of 4.1% of episodes and 3.1% of study participants.

Table 5 - Multivariate analysis of factors associated with the choice of crystalloid or colloid for fluid resuscitation episodes in Brazilian patients

Among the patients who received crystalloids, the odds of having an albumin level ≥ 2g/dL were 9.4 times (OR = 8.6 [0.8 - 89.8]) that of having an albumin level < 27g/dL.

There was also a higher chance of having unknown/missing values for albumin (OR = 7.2, 95%CI = 2.5 - 20.7) than having an albumin level < 27g/dL. Similarly, among those who received colloids, the odds of having an albumin level ≥ 27g/dL was one-fiftieth (OR = 0.2 [0.0 - 0.9]) that of having levels < 27g/dL. In addition, for patients receiving crystalloids, the odds of them being prescribed by a senior resident/fellow was 9.9 times higher (OR = 9.9, 95%CI = 3.6 - 27.7) than that of them being prescribed by a specialist/assistant physician. For patients receiving colloids, there was no clear association with fluid prescriber. The univariate analysis is available in table 7S (Supplementary material).

DISCUSSION

Our results demonstrated that in Brazil, crystalloids were more frequently used than colloids for fluid resuscitation. In other countries, crystalloids were also the fluid of choice, but in Brazil, the proportion was significantly higher. Sodium chloride (0.9%) was the most prescribed crystalloid in Brazil, despite the availability of balanced solutions. In other countries, balanced solutions were the preferred crystalloids. The availability of serum levels and the current albumin level were the factors associated with the choice of crystalloids or colloids for fluid resuscitation. In addition, the type of fluid prescriber was significantly associated with crystalloid use.

The results in Brazil are consistent with more recent studies regarding fluid resuscitation practices. Fluid resuscitation aims at improving tissue perfusion by restoring the perfusion pressure of vital organs and ensuring adequate cardiac output.(13) Aligned with these principles, the main indications for fluid administration in Brazilian ICUs were similar to those found in the main study and in other studies addressing this issue.(18,19) Our results also showed a reduction in the use of colloid solutions.(18-20) The evidence of harm from recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with synthetic colloids such as HES (3-12) could explain the preference for crystalloid solutions in Brazil and in other countries. It is interesting to note that the higher proportion of the use of colloids in other countries is represented by the use of albumin. As albumin is expensive, the costs may have limited its use in Brazil, a middle-income country.(21)

Another aspect that differentiates Brazil from other countries was the use of 0.9% sodium chloride as the crystalloid solution of choice. Although Plasmalyte is a high-cost balanced solution in Brazil, there are low-cost balanced solutions available (e.g., Ringer’s lactate). Our study was not designed to assess the potential reasons for this difference between Brazil and other countries. It is possible that this was influenced by the variation in availability among the sites and countries, which would bias any further analysis. The relatively small number of patients and variables in our database might also compromise the reliability of eventual findings. Another possible explanation is a cultural preference derived from years of using saline potentially associated with a reduced awareness of the potential adverse effects of hyperchloremic solutions, as the controversy around balanced vs. unbalanced crystalloids was not as intense as it is currently.(22-24) We believe our findings are potentially useful for hypothesis generation, and further studies are necessary to better evaluate potential factors associated with this choice.

Sepsis, ARDS, trauma and TBI did not influence the choice between colloids and crystalloids. The uncertainty about the ideal fluid for these specific diseases could explain this finding.(25) However, in Brazilian ICUs, albumin serum levels had a clear role in guiding the choice of fluid. This preference is not supported by the available evidence. The results from high-quality RCTs suggest that intravenous albumin administration does not reduce the mortality rate in mixed populations of critically ill patients, including those who have hypoalbuminemia.(26) Even albumin supplementation in addition to crystalloids targeting serum concentrations higher than 30g per liter in septic patients did not improve survival at 28 and 90 days.(27) Thus, we believe that this finding probably reflects local practice patterns rather than solid evidence. It is worth mentioning that senior residents and fellows were more likely to prescribe crystalloid fluids to patients than specialists, probably suggesting that academic exposure to scientific evidence promotes changes in practice behaviors.(28) Another potential explanation is the generation difference. The specialists were previously exposed to a cultural environment in which colloids were heavily used based on their potential better effect on oncotic pressure. In contrast, the new generation, composed of residents and fellows, was exposed to scientific evidence of harm with colloid use. This also suggests that continuous training, even for specialists, is important to ensure better quality of care.

This study has strengths and some limitations, some of which were mentioned in the main study.(18) This is the first study to describe resuscitation fluid practices in a large sample of Brazilian ICUs. The use of standard case report forms and definitions across all countries and detailed information on clinical factors that may potentially influence the choice of fluid for resuscitation at the time of the fluid episode allowed not only comparisons with other countries but also analyses of national practice patterns. Among the limitations of the study, it is important to mention the generalizability of the results. Even with a large sample of ICUs, the use of convenience sampling might have not reflected practices adopted in all Brazilian ICUs. Another limitation is the definition of fluid resuscitation episodes.(18) Finally, the interpretation of fluid administration practices in specific patient populations, such as those with sepsis, requires caution due to relatively small patient numbers.

CONCLUSION

Crystalloids were more frequently used than colloids for fluid resuscitation in Brazilian intensive care units. Sodium chloride (0.9%) was the most prescribed crystalloid in Brazil, despite the availability of balanced solutions. The availability of serum levels and the low albumin level were the factors that influenced the choice between crystalloid or colloid for fluid resuscitation. In addition, senior residents/fellows were more likely to prescribe crystalloid fluids to patients than specialists.

Clinical Trials register: Clinicaltrials.gov: Fluid-Translation of research into practice study (Fluid-TRIPS) - NCT02002013.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The original study was partially supported by unrestricted fluid grants from Baxter Healthcare and CSL Behring paid to the George Institute for Global Health. NH received a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Postgraduate Scholarship (2012±2014) that supported part of this work [APP1039312]. The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Appendices

Brazilian participating sites

Brazilian participating sites
Country coordinator: Flavia R Machado.
Albert Sabin Hospital e Maternidade - SR Zajac; Associação Beneficente Hospital Unimar - A Campos, D de Albuquerque; Associação Hospitalar Beneficente São Vicente de Paulo - J Gomez; Casa de Caridade de Carangola - S Vaz; Casa de Saúde Campinas - B Campos, W Delgadinho; Casa de Saúde Santa Lúcia - RT Amâncio, VC Souza-Dantas; Clínica Campo Grande - V Damasceno, J dos Santos; Clínica Dom Rodrigo - F de Araújo, I do Nascimento; Complexo Hospitalar Ortotrauma de Mangabeira - F de Araújo, I do Nascimento; Fundação Doutor Amaral Carvalho - M Higashi, E Mattos; Fundação Pio XII- Hospital de Câncer de Barretos - CP Amendola, UVA Silva; Hospital São José - F Dal-Pizzol, C Ritter; Hospital 9 de Julho - UTI 10a andar - MD D'Agostino; Hospital 9 de Julho - UTI 11a andar - C Moreira; Hospital 9 de Julho - UTI 1a andar - C Moreira; Hospital 9 de Julho - UTI 8a andar - L da Cruz Neto; Hospital 9 de Julho - UTI 9a andar - F Ganem; Hospital Adventista de Belém - ME de Oliveira, E Sobrinho; Hospital Adventista de Manaus - P Ferreira, R Rabelo; Hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz - R Cordioli, F Zampieri; Hospital Alvorada Brasília - ACC Cembranel, EJ Nascimento; Hospital Alvorada Taguatinga - RS Biondi, E Milhomem; Hospital Amecor - Unidade Coronariana - M Bley; Hospital Amecor - UTI Geral - M Bley; Hospital Anis Rassi - G Canedo, R Filho; Hospital Assunção - M Fukushima, L Miilher; Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa - UTI do Choque - S Houly; Hospital Brigadeiro - EC Maitan, OL Santarém; Hospital Carlos da Silva Lacaz - A Ferreira, E Ferreira; Hospital Casa de Saúde de Santos - P Rosateli, A Scazufka; Grupo Hospitalar Nossa Senhora da Conceição - W Nedel, VM Oliveira; Hospital Copa D'Or - CTI Amarelo - L Rabello, W Viana; Hospital Copa D'Or UPO 2 - AP Santos, W Viana; Hospital Copa D'Or - UTI Azul - L Tanaka, W Viana; Hospital Copa D'Or - UTI Pós-Operatória - L Salles, AP Santos; Hospital Copa D'Or - CTI Verde - K Ebecken, W Viana; Hospital Copa D'Or - Neurointensiva - D Musse, L Rabello; Hospital Copa D'Or - UTI Lilás - L Rabello, L Tanaka; Hospital da Luz Vila Mariana - F Filho, F dos Santos Borges; Hospital da Restauração - K Monteiro, F Buarque; Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - UTI Emergências Clínicas - P Mendes, L Taniguchi; Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - L de Stefano, A Gut; Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade Ribeirão Preto - M Auxiliadora-Martins, ML Puga; Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - V Nobre; Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - LM Caixeta, PF Vassallo; Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre - RB Moraes, J Vidart; Hospital de Base - Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto - H Batista, SM Lobo; Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo - CB da Silva, C Kmohan; Hospital de Clínicas Gaspar Vianna - C da Rocha, H Reis; Hospital de Urgência - UTI Geral 1 - D Pedroso, J Sobrinho; Hospital de Urgência - UTI Geral 4 - S Faria; Hospital de Urgência - UTI Neurológica 3 - J Sobrinho; Hospital de Urgência - UTI Trauma 2 - S Faria, D Pedroso; Hospital Distrital Evandro Ayres de Moura - L Figueiredo, H Magalhaes; Hospital do Coração - MLP Romano, R Vasconcelos; Hospital do Coração do Brasil - H Araújo, M de Araújo; Hospital do Rim e Hipertensão - AT Bafi, FGR Freitas; Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual - S Luzzi, D Ortega; Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo - T Farhat; Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo - UTI 7a andar - KM Sato; Hospital do Subúrbio - J Motta, C Lins; Hospital do Trabalhador - A Rea-Neto, F Reese; Hospital Dom Hélder - RAF Gomes, ARA Macedo Júnior; Hospital Dom Vicente Scherer - EM Rodrigues Filho, M Hadrich; Hospital e Maternidade Municipal Dr. Odelmo Leão Carneiro - C Arantes, MAS Toneto; Hospital e Maternidade Otaviano Neves - B Fernandino, A Pereira; Hospital e Pronto-Socorro 28 de Agosto - L Cavalcante, A Matos; Hospital Ecoville - L Araújo, A Rea-Neto; Hospital Escola da Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí - E Ferreira; Hospital Estadual de Urgência e Emergência de Vitória - L Dornelas, L Tcherniacovsk; Hospital Estadual Getúlio Vargas - UTI 1 - A Rodrigues, K Schechter; Hospital Estadual Getúlio Vargas - UTI 2 - F Montesanto, B Vidal; Hospital Estadual Getúlio Vargas - UTI 3 - C Frambach, G Moralez; Hospital Estadual Getúlio Vargas - UTI 4 - F Callil, V Montez; Hospital Estadual Rocha Faria - CHF Ramos; Hospital Evangélico de Londrina - J Festti, C Grion; Hospital Evangélico de Sorocaba - A de Souza, M Marabezi; Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado RJ - M Bissoli, J Marques; Hospital Felício Rocho - D Fontes, C Ranyere; Hospital Fernandes Távora - A Batista, L Martins; Hospital e Maternidade Galileo - W Delgadinho, M Rocha; Hospital Geral de Fortaleza - UTI Azul - C Feijó, V Araújo; Hospital Geral de Goiânia - D Pedroso, G Silva; Hospital Geral de Vitória da Conquista - M Martins, M Ribeiro II; Hospital Geral Dr. César Cals - A Justo, A Macedo; Hospital Goiânia Leste - M Nobrega, M Nobrega; Hospital Hélio Anjos Ortiz - H Júnior, M Lazzarotto; Hospital IBR - J Andrade, L Souza; Hospital Estadual Ipiranga - S Fernandes, F Lombardi; Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - TD Correa, M Assunção; Hospital Jardim Amália - C Arbex, M Arbex; Hospital Estadual Jayme Santos Neves - F dos Anjos Sad, E Stucchi; Hospital M'Boi Mirim - A Andrade, C de Abreu Filho; Hospital Madre Regina Prottman - D Colodetti, M Rodrigues; Hospital Marcelino Champagnat - M de Oliveira, A Rea-Neto; Hospital de Clínicas Mário Lioni - P Galhardo, A Japiassú; Hospital Maternidade e Pronto-Socorro Santa Lucia - R Bergo, F Dall'Orto; Hospital Maternidade São José - P Bernardes, R Figueiredo; Hospital Memorial São José - G Costa, K Monteiro; Hospital Moinhos de Vento - M Rosa, JHD Barth; Hospital Municipal de Paracatu - T Neiva, R de Souza; Hospital Municipal Dr. Munir Rafful - M Arbex, L de Oliveira; Hospital Municipal Irmã Dulce - D Boni, MOG Douglas; Hospital Municipal Dr. José Soares Hungria - K Conde, N Quintino; Hospital Municipal Padre Germano Lauck - R Almeida, J Fuck; Hospital Municipal Pedro II - E Paranhos, J Soares; Hospital Municipal Santa Isabel - A de Carvalho, C Tavares; Hospital Municipal São José - D Possamai, G Westphal; Hospital Nereu Ramos - E Berbigier, I Maia; Hospital Norte D'Or - J Pinto, S Sant'Anna; Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição - JM de Araújo, F Schuelter-Trevisol; Hospital Nossa Senhora dos Prazeres - A Gargioni, R Gargioni; Hospital Nossa Senhora Monte Serrat - MAP Alves; Hospital Novo Atibaia - A Bemfica, R Franco; Hospital Ortopédico - L da Silva, M Nobrega; Hospital Paulistano - I Campos, DT Noritomi; Hospital Paulo Sacramento - ELA Ferreira; Hospital PIO XII de São José dos Campos - Unidade Coronariana - M Durval, A Silva; Hospital Português - R Hermes, O Messeder; Hospital Primavera - J Feijó, E Nogueira; Hospital Professor Edmundo Vasconcelos - E Jodar, R Pereira; Hospital Regional de Sousa - P da Silveira, A Lunguinho; Hospital Regional de Itapetininga São Camilo - V Irineu, R Seabra; Hospital Regional de Jundiaí - G Cavalcanti, M Leão; Hospital Regional de Presidente Prudente - GN Betônico, LA Garcia; Hospital Regional de Samambaia - UTI 1 - F Amorim, C de Carvalho; Hospital Regional de Samambaia - UTI 2 - S Margalho, F Santos; Hospital Renascentista - D Beraldo, R dos Santos; Hospital Samaritano Rio de Janeiro - J Freitas, R Lima; Hospital Samaritano São Paulo - UTI 6a andar - B Mazza, S Almeida; Hospital Samaritano São Paulo - 3a andar - B Mazza, R Rocha; Hospital Samaritano João Pessoa - P Gottardo, C Mendes; Hospital Santa Helena - R Narciso, S Pantaleão; Hospital Santa Isabel - K Gerent; Hospital Santa Izabel - R Marco, D Vinho; Hospital Santa Juliana - EMV Troncoso, KLN Vilassante; Hospital Santa Lúcia - A Ventura, M da Silva; Hospital Santa Maria - M Nobrega, F Oliveira; Hospital Santa Maria - Intensibarra - I Santiago, A Lima; Hospital Santa Rita - F da Costa, M Vilela; Hospital Santa Rita - T Lisboa, A Torelly; Hospital São Camilo Ipiranga - M Dutra, F Giannini; Hospital São Camilo Pompéia - A Ramacciot, AT Maciel; Hospital São Francisco de Assis - GA da Silva, M da Silva; Hospital São João de Deus - G Gussen, M Rocha; Hospital São Lucas - UTI cirúrgica - C Santos, T Smith; Hospital São Lucas - UTI clínica - A Sobrinho, T Smith; Hospital São Lucas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul - S Baldiserotto, M Moretti; Hospital São Marcos - UTI A - W Dantas, L Ishiy; Hospital São Marcos - UTI B - W Dantas, L Ishiy; Hospital São Mateus - JG Moreira Filho; Hospital Saúde da Mulher - N Machado, L Rezegue; Hospital Sepaco - AT Bafi, ES Pacheco; Hospital SOS Cárdio - F Aranha, R Saorin; Hospital Tereza Ramos - K de Paula, R Waltrick; Hospital TotalCor - A Batista, P de Barros e Silva; Hospital Uniclinic - M Serpa, J Terceiro; Hospital Unimed ABC - MOG Douglas, R Rosenblat; Hospital Unimed de Belo Horizonte - A Barbosa, C Nogueira; Hospital Unimed de Limeira - A de Carvalho, L Paciência; Hospital Unimed de Macaé - JT Passos, PTS Almeida; Hospital Unimed de Manaus - WO Filho, MM Lippi; Hospital Unimed Rio de Janeiro - M Assad, F Miranda; Hospital Unimed Rio de Janeiro - UTI Cardio - R Gomes, P Nogueira; Hospital Unimed Salto - MAP Alves; Hospital Universitário Cajuru - V Bernardes, L Tannous; Hospital Universitário Ciências Médicas - R Dutra, G Mirachi; Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora - BV Pinheiro, EV Carvalho; Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UTI Clínica Médica - H Guimaraes, L Vendrame; Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UTI Geral - F Machado, A Nascente; Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UTI Neuro - F Machado, J Polezei; Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UTI Pronto-Socorro - AFT de Góis, KMC Teixeira; Hospital Universitário da Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí - G Cavalcanti, M Leão; Hospital Universitário de Maringá - A Germano, S Yamada; Hospital Universitário de Santa Cruz do Sul - P de Moraes, R Foernges; Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria - L Garcia, S Ribeiro; Hospital Universitário Getúlio Vargas - WO Filho, A Matos; Hospital Universitário Júlio Müller - D Castiglioni, G da Silva; Hospital Universitário Lauro
Wanderley - P Gottardo, C Mendes; Hospital Universitário Maria Aparecida Pedrossian - S Pinto; Hospital Universitário São Francisco de Paula - M Guerreiro, L Teixeira; Hospital Universitário -Universidade Federal Grande Dourados - M Matsui, E Neto; Hospital Vila da Serra - F Anselmo, H Urbano; Hospital Vita Batel - R Deucher, A Rea-Neto; Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - J Ferreira, E Costa; Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - REC - FRBG Galas, LA Hajjar; Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - FG Lima, VRB Benites; Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas II - R Borba, M Douglas; Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia - CPP Castro, AB Saraiva; Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas - Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - FA Bozza, A Japiassú; Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo - JP Almeida, LA Hajjar; Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer - C Righy, B Goncalves; Instituto D'Or de Ensino e Pesquisa - G Viana, A Reis; Instituto Latino Americano de Sepse - F Carrara, A Carvalho Júnior; Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia - M de Freitas, R Felipe; Instituto Ortopédico - L Caetano, M Nobrega; Instituto de Pesquisa Hospital do Coração - D de Moraes Paisani; Irmandade de Misericórdia de Guaxupé - SA Bezerra, DRB Pereira; Irmandade Misericórdia Hospital Santa Casa de Monte Alto - L Cassimiro, W Filho; Lifecenter - M Hermeto, B Pinto; Samur - L Ferraz, L Melo; Santa Casa de Angra dos Reis - V Bogado, S Silva; Santa Casa de Belém do Pará - R Batista, N Fonseca; Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte - P Correia, G Reis; Santa Casa de Caridade de Diamantina - MF Sousa, MMF Souza; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Assis - GN Betônico, AL Leonardi; Santa Casa de Caridade de Don Pedrito - J Alvarez, A Tarouco; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Paraguaçu Paulista - JA Alves, PRG Silva; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre - G Friedman, T Lisboa; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Presidente Prudente - C Bosso, G Plantier; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Ribeirão Preto - P Antoniazzi, F Ostini; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Santana do Livramento - J Alvarez, D de Souza; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Santo Amaro - P Chaves, J Farhat Júnior; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo - R Marco, E Peixoto; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória da Conquista - G Moreno; Santa Casa Maringá - Universidade Estadual Maringá - D Bolognese, P Torres; São Bernardo Apart Hospital - R López, M Rodrigues; Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras Hospital Sírio-Libanês - LCP Azevedo, F Ramos; Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UTI da Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas - C Gontijo-Coutinho, T Santos; Universidade Estadual de Londrina - C Grion, M Tanita; Vitória Apart Hospital - A Muniz, C Piras
The other countries sites are mentioned in the original publication.

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