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SPCI - Sociedade Portuguesa de Cuidados Intensivos

Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva

AMIB - Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE MEDICINA INTENSIVA AND THE SOCIEDADE PORTUGUESA DE CUIDADOS INTENSIVOS

ISSN: 0103-507X
Online ISSN: 1982-4335

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Rocha ÂRM, Costa CHV. Para: Alterações da mecânica ventilatória durante a fisioterapia respiratória em pacientes ventilados mecanicamente. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2015;27(4):422-423

 

 

2015;27(4):422-423
LETTER TO THE EDITOR

10.5935/0103-507X.20150072

To: Changes in respiratory mechanics during respiratory physiotherapy in mechanically ventilated patients

Para: Alterações da mecânica ventilatória durante a fisioterapia respiratória em pacientes ventilados mecanicamente

 

Conflicts of interest: None.

Corresponding author: Caio Henrique Veloso da Costa, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Geral do Hospital Geral do Estado Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela Av. Siqueira Campos, 2.095 - Trapiche da Barra, Zip code: 57010000 - Maceió (AL), Brazil, E-mail: [email protected]

 

To the Editor,

We were very interested in the study by Moreira et al.(1) as it reflects common and routine respiratory physiotherapy practices in intensive care units in Brazil and other countries. We appreciate the author's effort in examining the evidence for this type of therapy. In this study, an improvement was observed in the ventilatory mechanics parameters after the application of a respiratory physiotherapy protocol in patients dependent on mechanical ventilation. The authors report a significant increase in dynamic pulmonary compliance, tidal volume, and oxygen saturation and a reduction in respiratory system resistance after application of the protocol. This protocol consisted of chest compression and vibration maneuvers, 0.9% saline instillation, and hyperinflation with a manual resuscitator, followed by endotracheal aspiration. However, we note the absence of a control group to help determine whether these gains were due to the use of the protocol and whether these gains could not be achieved with the endotracheal suction procedure alone.

According to the AARC Clinical Practice Guidelines - Endotracheal Suctioning of Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Artificial Airways,(2) the decrease in peak pressure and airway resistance and the increase in dynamic compliance and tidal volume are expected and desired outcomes for endotracheal suctioning procedures and, therefore, a confounding factor for the effectiveness of the proposed therapy.

The authors also did not report any peak airway pressure controls during hyperinflation with the manual resuscitator, which may compromise the safety of the procedure. Peak pressures above 40cmH2O may be associated with alveolar overdistention and the risk of barotrauma, suggesting, for safety reasons, the use of manometers coupled to a manual resuscitator during these maneuvers.(3-5)

Ângelo Roncalli Miranda Rocha
General Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Geral do Estado Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela - Maceió (AL), Brazil; Hospital Escola Hélvio Auto - Maceió (AL), Brazil; Centro de Estudos Superiores de Maceió - Maceió (AL), Brazil. General Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Geral do Estado Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela - Maceió (AL), Brazil.
Caio Henrique Veloso da Costa
General Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Geral do Estado Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela - Maceió (AL), Brazil; Hospital Escola Hélvio Auto - Maceió (AL), Brazil; Centro de Estudos Superiores de Maceió - Maceió (AL), Brazil. General Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Geral do Estado Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela - Maceió (AL), Brazil.

REFERENCES

Moreira FC, Teixeira C, Savi A, Xavier R. Alterações da mecânica ventilatória durante a fisioterapia em pacientes ventilados mecanicamente. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2015;27(2):155-60.
American Association for Respiratory Care. AARC Clinical Practice Guidelines. Endotracheal suctioning of mechanically ventilated patients with artificial airways 2010. Respir Care. 2010;55(6):758-64. Link PubMed
Markstaller K, Rudolph A, Karmrodt J, Gervais HW, Goetz R, Becher A, et al. Effect of chest compressions only during experimental basic life support on alveolar collapse and recruitment. Resuscitation. 2008;79(1):125-32. Link DOILink PubMed
Malbouisson LM, de Souza EL, Barbalho L, Massoco Cde O, Carmona MJ, Auler JO Jr. Assessing the impact of lung hyperinflation maneuver on systemic inflammatory response and lung collapse in patients undergoing surgeries under spontaneous ventilation. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2010;60(3):247-58. Link DOILink PubMed
Lemes DA, Guimarães FS. O uso da hiperinsuflação como recurso fisioterapêutico em unidade de terapia intensiva. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2007;19(2):221-5. Link DOI


 

 

AUTHORS' RESPONSE

 

We would like to thank you for your comments. Several respiratory physiotherapy techniques are used in critically ill patients.(1) However, the evidence for the use of multimodal respiratory physiotherapy is conflicting.(2) Even the Clinical Practice Guideline of an important respiratory care society is based on the experience of specialists and not on the results of randomized clinical trials because of lack of evidence.(3)

Regarding the first question raised, our study protocol followed a sequence of techniques. After mobilizing the secretions from the distal airways using compression and vibration maneuvers and manual hyperinflation, the method to remove the secretions focuses on tracheal aspiration. This, in turn, only succeeds in removing the secretions located up to the third bronchial generation. Thus, it should be preceded by the techniques used in this protocol. It would be inconsistent to not aspirate secretions removed from the distal airways to the proximity of the endotracheal tube because this could lead to patient-ventilator asynchrony, respiratory distress, endotracheal tube obstruction, and increased respiratory effort.

As noted in the letter, the simple act of performing tracheal aspiration can improve respiratory mechanics. However, this procedure should not be performed systematically because it can lead to complications including a decrease in dynamic pulmonary compliance and functional residual capacity, atelectasis, hypoxemia, a bronchoconstrictor response, and arrhythmias.(4) The practical guide itself reports that this procedure, which is frequently used in patients on mechanical ventilation, can cause such complications.(3) Therefore, we believe that the improvements in mechanical ventilation occurred because of the sequence of the procedures, which culminated in tracheal aspiration.

In response to the second question, we did not use a manometer for monitoring during the hyperinflation maneuver with a manual resuscitator because our equipment has a safety valve that prevents the airway pressure from exceeding 40cmH2O; therefore, there is no need to monitor the pressure using a manometer.

Cassiano Teixeira
Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil; Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Moinhos de Vento - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil. Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Moinhos de Vento - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
Augusto Savi
Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil; Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Moinhos de Vento - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil. Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Moinhos de Vento - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.

REFERENCES

Gosselink R, Bott J, Johnson M, Dean E, Nava S, Norrenberg M, et al. Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34(7):1188-99.
Stiller K. Physiotherapy in intensive care: an update systematic review. Chest. 2013;144(3):825-47. Review.
American Association for Respiratory Care. AARC Clinical Practice Guidelines. Endotracheal suctioning of mechanically ventilated patients with artificial airways 2010. Respir Care. 2010;55(6):758-64.
Guglielminotti J, Alzieu M, Maury E, Guidet B, Offenstadt G. Bedside detection of retained tracheobronquial secretions in patients receiving mechanical ventilation: is it time for tracheal suctioning? Chest. 2000;118(4):1095-9.

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